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كيف تحمي نفسك من ضربة الشمس في الحج ؟

ضربة الشمس

تعتبر السعودية من الدول العربية التي تُعرف بالمناخ شديد الحرارة خاصة في الصيف، و لأن معظم مناسك الحج تتم في الهواء الطلق والأماكن المفتوحة، فقد يتعرض البعض لما يسمي بـ ضربة الشمس ، لذلك سنعرض أهم المعلومات عن ضربة الشمس و كيف يمكن أن تقي نفسك من ضربة الشمس في الحج ..

ما هي ضربة الشمس ؟

نتيجة للتعرض لحرارة الشمس الحارقة لفترات طويلة خاصة في الدول العربية كالسعودية وبذل مجهود بدني كبير أثناء أداء مناسك الحج كالسعي والطواف، فإن ذلك قد يؤدي للإصابة بـ ضربـة الشمس ، حيث ترتفع درجة حرارة الجسم (أكثر من 40 درجة مئوية) فيحدث خلل يؤثر على خلايا الجهاز العصبي، التي تتحكم في درجة الحرارة ، و غالباً ما يصاحب ذلك أعراض أخري كـ الجفاف ، الغثيان ، التشنجات و فقدان الوعي و قد تصل لغيبوبة.

ما هي أعراض ضربة الشمس ؟

أولا تصل حرارة الجسم لـ 40 درجة مئوية و أكثر ، مع الشعور بصداع شديد ، دوار ، نقص شديد في التعرق بالرغم من ارتفاع درجة الحرارة ، احمرار و جفاف الجلد ، وهن العضلات ، تسارع ضربات القلب و التنفس ، و قد تصل إلى تشنجات و فقدان للوعي.

ما هى الإسعافات الأولية للشخص المصاب بضربة شمس ؟

  • هناك خطوات أساسية يجب اتباعها في حالة الاشتباه بإصابة شخص بضربة شمس لحين وصول الإسعاف أو المساعده الطبية، وهي:
  • نقل المصاب إلى الظل بعيداً عن الشمس في مكان جيد التهوية، و تخفيف ملابسه بقدر الإمكان.
  • تركيز مصدر تهوية كمروحة على المصاب، مع استخدام اسفنجة مبللة بالماء و تمريرها على جسم المصاب ككمادات.
  • وضع كمادات ثلج على أماكن من جسم المصاب كـ : تحت الإبط ، الفخذ ، الرقبة و الظهر ، لأن هذه المناطق غنية جدا بالأوعية الدموية؛ فتساعد على خفض درجة الحرارة بشكل أسرع.
  • إذا لزم الأمر يمكن وضع المصاب بحوض استحمام به ماء بارد أو ثلج إن أمكن.
  • تعويض جسم المصاب بشرب الماء و السوائل لما يعاينه من جفاف.

اقرأ أيضا : الإجهاد الحراري : أسبابه وأعراضه وطرق علاجه 

عوامل تزيد من الإصابة بـ ضربة الشمس

  • السن عامل مهم في الإصابة، حيث تزداد فرصة التعرض لضربة الشمس في الأطفال حتى 4 سنوات و كبار السن 65 عام أو أكثر و خاصة ذوي الأمراض المزمنة ، و لأن نسبة كبيرة من الحجاج تكون من كبار السن.
  • عدم شرب سوائل كافية للجسم من أهم العوامل المؤثرة و التى تزيد من حدوث الجفاف.
  • و بالطبع يبقي العامل الأساسي هو التعرض لدرجة حرارة جو عالية مع القيام بمجهود بدني كبير و قلة عوامل التهوية، و يزيد ذلك من احتمالية ذلك أيضاً عدم التعود على المناخ الحار.
  • من العوامل المؤثرة أيضاً : الحالات المرضية و الأمراض المزمنة مثل السكر، ضغط الدم، أمراض القلب ، الربو ، فشل الكلى، الأمراض المسببة للحمى.

نصائح للوقاية من الإصابة بـ ضربة الشمس في الحج ؟

  • في حالة الرجال يكون لبس الإحرام وحده كافي ، و لكن في حالة السيدات يُسمح بارتداء أي ملابس ، لذا ننصح السيدات بتخفيف الملابس قدر الإمكان لتجنب رفع درجة حرارة الجسم.
  • قد يفيد استخدام كريم واقي من الشمس (Sunblock) إن أمكن
  • شرب الكثير من المياه و السوائل لتجنب الجفاف ، يُنصح بتناول ما يعادل 8 أكواب ماء على الأقل يومياً.
  • محاولة عدم الوقوف في الشمس لفترات طويلة قدر الإمكان، أو الوقوف في أكثر الأماكن ظلاً، و بالطبع يكون من الأفضل استخدام شمسية أثناء التواجد في الأماكن المفتوحة و أثناء التنقل من مكان لأخر.
  • متابعة لون البول لأنه إذا أصبح داكناً، فإن ذلك علامة على وجود جفاف.
  • تجنب المشروبات التى بها مادة “الكافيين” لأنها تساعد على فقد سوائل الجسم و بالتالى زيادة الجفاف.

نرجو أن يساعدك المقال في الوقاية من ضربة الشمس في الحج ، ويمكنكم استشارة أحد أطبائنا من هنا ، لأي استفسار طبي آخر، مع تمنياتنا لكم بحج مبرور وذنب مغفور بإذن الله..

اقرأ أيضاً :

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المراجع
  • webmd - Heat Stroke: Symptoms and Treatment (03/30/2020) https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/heat-stroke-symptoms-and-treatment
  • mayoclinic - Heatstroke (03/30/2020) https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/heat-stroke/symptoms-causes/syc-20353581
  • medicinenet - Heat stroke facts Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story Heat stroke can be fatal. Heat stroke can be fatal. Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia in which the body temperature is elevated dramatically. Heat stroke is a medical emergency and can be fatal if not promptly and properly treated. The cause of heat stroke is an elevation in body temperature, often accompanied by dehydration. Symptoms of heat stroke can include confusion, agitation, disorientation, the absence of sweating, and coma. Heat stroke is diagnosed by observation of the symptoms and signs in a person exposed to extreme temperatures. Heat stroke is treated by cooling the victim is a critical step in the treatment of heat stroke. Always notify emergency services immediately if heat stroke is suspected. The most important measures to prevent heat strokes are to avoid becoming dehydrated and to avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather. Infants, the elderly, athletes, and outdoor workers are the groups at greatest risk for heat stroke. Leaving infants, children, or animals in cars poses a risk for heat stroke. Even in moderate weather, the temperature inside a closed car can reach dangerous levels. Avoid Heat Emergencies, Keep Hydrated 5 Signs and Symptoms of a Heat-Related Illness and Heat Stroke The following checklist can help you recognize the symptoms of heat-related illnesses: Heat Rash: Heat rash looks like a red cluster of pimples or small blisters. Heat cramps: Symptoms are painful muscle spasms in the arms, legs, or abdomen Heat syncope (fainting): Symptoms of heat syncope or fainting are Heat exhaustion is a warning that the body is getting too hot. Heat stroke is a serious, life-threatening condition that occurs when the body loses its ability to control its temperature. Read more about heat related illnesses » What is heat stroke? Who is at risk? Readers Comments 3 Share Your Story Heat stroke is a form of hyperthermia or heat-related illness, an abnormally elevated body temperature with accompanying physical symptoms including changes in the nervous system function. Unlike heat cramps and heat exhaustion, two other forms of hyperthermia that are less severe, heat stroke is a true medical emergency that is often fatal if not properly and promptly treated. Heat stroke is also sometimes referred to as heatstroke or sun stroke. Severe hyperthermia is defined as a body temperature of 104 F (40 C) or higher. The body normally generates heat as a result of metabolism, and is usually able to dissipate the heat by radiation of heat through the skin or by evaporation of sweat. However, in extreme heat, high humidity, or vigorous physical exertion under the sun, the body may not be able to sufficiently dissipate the heat and the body temperature rises, sometimes up to 106 F (41.1 C) or higher. Another cause of heat stroke is dehydration. A dehydrated person may not be able to sweat fast enough to dissipate heat, which causes the body temperature to rise. Heat stroke is not the same as a stroke. "Stroke" is the general term used to describe decreased oxygen flow to an area of the brain. Those most susceptible (at risk) individuals to heat stroke include: Infants The elderly (often with associated heart diseases, lung diseases, kidney diseases, or who are taking medications that make them vulnerable to dehydration and heat strokes) Athletes Individuals who work outside and physically exert themselves under the sun Infants, children, or pets left in cars. Heat stroke is sometimes classified as exertional heat stroke (EHS, which is due to overexertion in hot weather) or non-exertional heat stroke (NEHS, which occurs in climactic extremes and affects the elderly, infants, and chronically ill. SLIDESHOW Dehydration: Causes, Symptoms & Tips to Stay Hydrated See Slideshow What are heat stroke symptoms and signs? Readers Comments 5 Share Your Story Symptoms of heat stroke can sometimes mimic those of heart attack or other conditions. Sometimes a person experiences symptoms of heat exhaustion before progressing to heat strokes. Signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include nausea, vomiting, fatigue, weakness, headache, muscle cramps and aches, and dizziness. However, some individuals can develop symptoms of heat stroke suddenly and rapidly without warning. Different people may have different symptoms and signs of heat stroke. Common symptoms and signs of heat stroke include; high body temperature, the absence of sweating, with hot red or flushed dry skin, rapid pulse, difficulty breathing, strange behavior, hallucinations, confusion, agitation, disorientation, seizure, and/or coma. Latest Exercise & Fitness News Walking During Work Meetings Bring Benefits How to Exercise on 'Rest and Recovery' Days Health Tip: Treating a Charley Horse Weight-Free Strength Training Health Tip: Benefits of Fitness Boxing Want More News? Sign Up for MedicineNet Newsletters! Daily Health News How Three Countries Kept Coronavirus in Check Severe COVID-19 Injures Heart Teens, Millennials Ignoring Coronavirus COVID-19: Can Stroke Drug Help? U.S. Has Most Coronavirus Cases XML More Health News » Trending on MedicineNet Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) Coronavirus (COVID-19) Facts How Long Can the Coronavirus Stay Airborne? Remdesivir (RDV) COVID-19 Prevention Tips Can infants, children, and teens suffer from heat stroke? While the elderly are at greatest risk for heat stroke, infants and children are also at risk. In particular, infants or young children who are unattended in locked a car may suffer heat-related illness quickly, since the indoor temperature of a locked car can rise to dangerous levels even in moderate weather. Rarely, infants have died of heat stroke when overly bundled in their cribs. It is critically important that parents understand the medical dangers inherent in leaving children unattended in cars in addition to the obvious safety risks. Further, cars should always be kept locked when not in use so that children may not enter them and become trapped. Among older children and teens, heat stroke or heat-related illness is a risk for athletes who train in hot environmental conditions. Among reported heat-related illnesses in U.S. high school athletes, the majority of cases occur in football players during the month of August. QUESTION Muscle weighs more than fat. See Answer 4 First aid treatments for heat stroke Readers Comments 1 Share Your Story Victims of heat stroke must receive immediate treatment to avoid permanent organ damage. First and foremost, cool the victim. Get the victim to a shady area, remove clothing, apply cool or tepid water to the skin (for example, you may spray the person with cool water from a garden hose), fan the victim to promote sweating and evaporation, and place ice packs under the armpits and groin. If the person is able to drink liquids, have them drink cool water or other cool beverages that do not contain alcohol or caffeine. Monitor body temperature with a thermometer and continue cooling efforts until the body temperature drops to 101 to 102 F (38.3 to 38.8 C). Always notify emergency services (911) immediately. If their arrival is delayed, they can give you further instructions for treatment of the victim. Subscribe to MedicineNet's Weight Loss/Healthy Living Newsletter By clicking "Submit," I agree to the MedicineNet Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy. I also agree to receive emails from MedicineNet and I understand that I may opt out of MedicineNet subscriptions at any time. How can you prevent heat stroke? Readers Comments 48 Share Your Story The most important measures to prevent heat strokes are to avoid becoming dehydrated and to avoid vigorous physical activities in hot and humid weather. If you have to perform physical activities in hot weather, drink plenty of fluids (such as water and sports drinks), but avoid alcohol, and caffeine (including soft drinks and tea), which may lead to dehydration. Your body will need replenishment of electrolytes (such as sodium) as well as fluids if you sweat excessively or perform vigorous activity in the sunlight for prolonged periods. Take frequent breaks to hydrate yourself. Wear hats and light-colored, lightweight, loose clothes. Keep cars locked when not in use and never, ever, leave infants, children or pets unattended in a locked car. From WebMD Logo Fitness Resources How to Work Out Smarter, Not Longer Best Exercises for Psoriatic Arthritis Basic Tips for Staying Healthy With MS Featured Centers Good and Bad Foods for Psoriasis Health Solutions From Our Sponsors The Science of Addiction Is It Normal to Have a Curved Penis? Health Solutions From Our Sponsors Penis Curved When Erect The Turning Point The HPV Vaccine Pediatric Hospital 101 Dupuytren’s Treatment Answers for Infant Reflux Medically Reviewed on 12/11/2019 References (03/30/2020) https://www.medicinenet.com/heat_stroke/article.htm
  • thaqafnafsak - أعراض ضربة الشمس والوقاية منها ملف كامل (03/30/2020) http://www.thaqafnafsak.com/2015/08/%D8%A3%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B6-%D8%B6%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%A9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B4%D9%85%D8%B3-%D9%88%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D9%82%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9.html
  • NHS :National Health Service - Heat exhaustion and heatstroke (03/30/2020) https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/heat-exhaustion-heatstroke/